контрольная работа вариант 3

Предмет: английский язык
 
15-07-2014, 15:48
Содержание работы:
 

Вариант III

1. Установите соответствия между фразами и словами:

a)  to appeal            1. Deposit of money to guarantee appearance at one’s trial.

b)  to prosecute       2. First ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.

c)  punishment        3. Take a question (to a higher court) for rehearing and a new    decision.

d)  Bill of Rights     4. Penalty inflicted for wrongdoing.

e)   bail to school.    5. To start legal proceedings against somebody.

2.   Переведите предложения:

1.   The Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the USA and it meets in the  Supreme Court building in Washington.

2.   The district court is the only Federal court where trials are held, juries are used and witnesses are called.

3.   Before the trial the judge and the lawyers question members of the jury to find out if they have any personal interest in it, or any feelings that might make it hard for a juror to be impartial.

4.   Members of the jury take an oath to answer all questions completely and honestly.

5.   Nowadays the basic modes of punishment in England are custody, probation and fine.

3.  Перепишите предложения в пассивном залоге и переведите их:

1. Someone has given him a lot of money.

2. The police arrested two hundred people.

4.  Поставьте предложения в отрицательную форму и переведите их:

1.   They made a plan of an assault.

5.  Задайте все возможные вопросы к предложениям и переведите предложения:

1. My mother conducts the last interrogation.

6.  Перепишите каждое предложение как утвердительное, вопросительное или отрицательное согласно указанию и переведите эти предложения:

1.  Detectives searched and seized stolen property and instruments of the crime. (negative)

7.  Поставьте глаголы в скобках  в соответствующую временную форму и переведите предложения:

1.  She came to the court a minute ago.

8.  Раскройте скобки. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на придаточные предложения условия и времени:

1.          If you  help me, we shall catch the criminal.

9. Переведите предложения:

1.   The police must investigate the murder committed by the notorious gang.

Полиция должна расследовать убийство, совершенное известной банды.

10.  Прочитайте, перепишите и переведите текст.

What are crimes?

It is very important to know which acts are criminal.

Offenses Against Society

The most fundamental characteristic of a crime is that it is a punishable offense against society. Consequently, when a crime occurs, society, acting through such employees as the police and prosecutors, attempts to identify, arrest, prosecute, and punish the criminal. These measures are designed to protect society rather than to aid the victim of the crime. Victims of almost all crimes can sue identified criminals for civil damages, but seldom do because it is costly and difficult to collect from such defendants.

Elements of Crimes

Before anyone can be convicted of a crime, three elements usually must be proved at the trial. They are:

1. a duty to do or not to do a certain thing,

2. a violation of the duty, and

3. criminal intent.

Duty. The duty to do or not to do a certain thing usually is described by statutes which prohibit certain conduct. Generally only conduct that is serious ­involving violence or theft of property - is classified as an offense against society and therefore criminal.

Violation of the Duty. The breach of duty must also be proved in a criminal trial. This is the specific conduct by the defendant, which violates the duty. For example, battery is always a crime. Criminal battery is often defined in statutes as «the intentional causing of corporal harm. » Corporal harm means bodily harm. A breach of this duty could be established in a trial by the testimony of a witness who swore that she saw the defendant delib­erately punch the victim.

Criminal Intent. The third element, criminal intent, must be proved in most cases. Criminal intent generally means that the defendant intended to commit the act and intended to do evil.

A few crimes do not require criminal intent. These are generally less serious crimes, for which a jail sentence is very unlikely. Traffic offenses fall within this classification. You may not have intended to speed or have intended evil but you have still committed this crime.  

Today, statutes of most states fix the age of criminal liability at 18, but the figure ranges from 16 to 19. Statutes often provide that minors as young as 13 or 16 may be tried and punished as adults if they are accused of serious crimes such as murder. Generally, however, what is a crime for adults is juvenile delinquency for minors. 


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